Archivo de la categoría: Historia

El padre de la computadora moderna

Con motivo de uno de mis escritos en mis clases de Inglés he tenido que hablar de alguien al que yo considere una estrella o le tenga especial admiración. Me he decidido por alguien que pocos conocen pero al que, tras este escrito, espero tengan más aprecio en el futuro. Hablo del padre de la computadora: Alan Turing.

El hombre que es considerado como una de las personas más importantes en la historia de los ordenadores fue un matemático y filósofo británico llamado Alan Mathisson Turing.

turing

Alan Mathisson Turing (1912-1954)

Nacido en Londres, en 1912, su infancia la pasó en su mayoría con amigos de la familia debido principalmente a la ausencia de sus padres por motivos laborales. Su padre era un importante cargo británico y sus constantes viajes a la India impedían que se hicieran cargo de él. Desde pequeño, Alan mostró especial interés por las matemáticas, números y puzles. Se dice que aprendió a leer en unas pocas semanas y, a los 16 años, leyó y comprendió (que no es lo mismo) el complejo trabajo de Albert Einstein.

En 1928 publicó “On Computable Numbers”, donde ya presentaba la idea de su “máquina de Turing”. Esta idea sería la base del ordenador multi-propósito y estableció el inicio de conceptos como “algoritmo” o “computación”. Estos hechos hacen que Turing sea considerado el inventor del ordenador tal y como hoy lo conocemos.

Durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, Turing trabajó en el centro de inteligencia británico y dirigió la sección de criptoanálisis, que consiguió romper el código “Enigma” alemán. Este hecho cambió el curso de la guerra permitiendo a las fuerzas británicas adelantarse a la estrategia enemiga y finalmente salir victoriosos. La brillantez de Turing se refleja no sólo en el descifrado del código enemigo. También tuvo en cuenta complejos cálculos estadísticos para evitar que los alemanes sospecharan que su código Enigma había sido roto. De este modo consiguió evitar que los enemigos modificaran su sistema de encriptación de mensajes, creyendo que los aliados simplemente tenían “suerte”. Este trabajo se ha mantenido en secreto hasta el año 1970.

Desgraciadamente, en 1952, Turing fue acusado y perseguido por su homosexualidad (consideradada delito por entonces) y, harto de soportar esta situación, se quitó la vida dos años más tarde.


IMÁGENES: www.youtube.com, www.independent.co.uk

 

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